The Metropolitan Province of Trivandrum was established by Pope Pius XI by the Apostolic Constitution “Christo Pastorum Principi” on 11 June 1932 with the Archieparchy of Trivandrum and its suffragan Eparchy of Tiruvalla. On 28 October 1978, Pope John Paul II erected the Eparchy of Bathery, bifurcating the Eparchy of Tiruvalla. On 16 December 1996 the Eparchy of Marthandom was erected, bifurcating the Archieparchy of Trivandrum. On 15 January 2003 the Eparchy of Muvattupuzha was erected, bifurcating the Eparchy of Tiruvalla.
The Syro Malankara Catholic Church was raised to the status of a Major Archiepiscopal Church on 10 February 2005. The Holy Episcopal Synod of the Church took further steps for the efficient administration of the Church and pastoral care of the faithful. On 14 May 2006 a new Metropolitan Province was erected with Tiruvalla as the Metropolitan See and Bathery and Muvattupuzha as its suffragan Eparchies. On 1 January 2007 Moran Mor Cyril Baselios Catholicos erected the Eparchy of Mavelikara, bifurcating the Major Archieparchy of Trivandrum. Now the Metropolitan See of Trivandrum has two suffragan Eparchies, namely, Marthandom and Mavelikara.
The first Metorpolitan Archbishop of the province of Trivnadrum was the Servant of God Geevarghese Mar Ivanios. He was succeeded by Archbishop Benedict Mar Gregorios on 27 January 1955. On the demise of Mar Gregorios the Rome Pontiff appointed Archbishop Cyril Mar Baselios on 14 December 1995. On 10 February 2005 he was elevated as the first Major Archbishop and Catholicos of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church. The present Major Archbishop is Moran Mor Baselios Cleemis Catholicos who was elected on 10 February 2007 and enthroned on 5 March 2007.